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Boeing’s hydrogen-powered Drone

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Once operational, the Phantom Eye, boasting a wingspan of 150 feet (46 m), will reach altitudes of up to 65,000 feet and carry payloads weighing up to 450 pounds (204 kg). Its liquid-hydrogen propulsion system, whose only byproduct is water, is designed to allow the aircraft to stay aloft for up to four days.

 

 

Another interesting fact  is shown by the graph below, it again shows the great potential of hydrogen!

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Source: http://www.gizmag.com/boeing-phantom-eye-taxi-testing/26157/

Biological Hydrogen Production

New technology from researchers at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University greatly improves the efficiency with which hydrogen can be produced in one type of microbe — potentially bringing biological production of this clean fuel source one step closer to economic feasibility. Their discovery, the findings for which appear in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, resulted in a 500-fold increase in the amount of hydrogen produced in the bacterium used in this research.

For more than a decade, hydrogen has been touted as a clean alternative to fossil fuels because it releases a significant amount of energy relative to its weight and also produces nothing but water when it burns. It can also be produced cleanly, using biological methods, such as photosynthesis. However, the high costs incurred in production have proved too big an obstacle to allow for its wide-spread use.

BioHydGen

In this cross-section illustration of a cyanobacteria, incoming sunlight is captured and used to generate a cellular electron pool that researchers were able to tap to produce hydrogen.

Silver’s team, which included Wyss Institute postdoctoral fellow, Daniel Ducat, and Gairik Sachdeva of Harvard’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, has made headway toward one such gain. They focused their attention on one possible — yet problematic — biological production method involving an enzyme known as hydrogenase.

Certain types of hydrogenase can produce a constant flow of hydrogen using only sunlight and water, but most cannot. The difference lies in the particular enzyme’s ability to tolerate oxygen. Most variations are so intolerant of oxygen that its presence will shut down hydrogen production process within a matter of minutes. Yet, creating a way to keep oxygen from entering the production environment would be both costly and impractical — issues that have effectively kept this method off the table.

The researchers developed a technology that could serve as a platform from which to engineer oxygen-tolerant enzymes. Their approach could help lead the way to a cost-effective process for producing significant amounts of hydrogen.

I think that it is great technology, although I am not sure if this technology can provide us with a high and steady flow of hydrogen. What do you think?

Source: http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpage/238/

Liquid Hydrogen: the Fuel of Choice for Space Exploration

Despite criticism and early technical failures, the taming of liquid hydrogen proved to be one of NASA’s most significant technical accomplishments. Hydrogen is a light and extremely powerful rocket propellant, has the lowest molecular weight of any known substance and burns with extreme intensity (5,500°F). In combination with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen yields the highest specific impulse, or efficiency in relation to the amount of propellant consumed, of any known rocket propellant. 

 

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Dispite the fact that it is a very good rocket propellant, it is known that the storage of liquid hydrogen is very dangerous. 

Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/technology/hydrogen/hydrogen_fuel_of_choice.html

Hydrogen Bomb

H-Bomb

A hydrogen bomb is, by far, the most destructive weapon that mankind has ever invented. It is the most powerful type of nuclear bomb, in some cases reaching more than 2,000 times the yield of the nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

Unlike the first “atom bombs” — also known as A-bombs — which release energy by fission, or breaking apart, of heavy atomic nuclei like uranium and plutonium, a hydrogen bomb releases energy by fusing together light nuclei like tritium or deuterium, converting even more matter into energy.

 

 

Working principle:

Nuclear fusion involves creating heavier elements out of lighter ones by joining atomic nuclei together. In the Sun, this mostly takes the form of fusing hydrogen nuclei to form helium. A fusion reaction is very difficult to start because nuclei are positively charged, and therefore strongly repel one another through the powerful electromagnetic force.

The nuclei of elements heavier than hydrogen are held together by the strong nuclear force, which, at this scale, is much stronger than the electromagnetic. The strong force, however, is only significant over extremely short distances, of around the size of an atomic nucleus.

 

What are your visions on nuclear warfare?

 

Read more: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-a-hydrogen-bomb.htm

Hydrogen Water Machine

Do you know that you can buy a machine that enriches your water with hydrogen? Why would you buy this?

LIFE’s Hydrogen Water Machine is designed to make hydrogen-rich alkaline ionized water which may fight aging and protect the brain and nervous system from oxidative damage.

 

Hydrogen’s Role in the Body

Hydrogen is believed to be one of the most powerful antioxidants known to medical science. The Medical Molecular Hydrogen Symposium – a research group dedicated to exploring hydrogen’s therapeutic benefits – has identified 38 illnesses that hydrogen has demonstrated beneficial effects for.

More than 70 studies have been published that have shown hydrogen has anti-oxidative, anti- inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects in the body. Research suggests that these benefits of hydrogen can be delivered in drinking water, and even small amounts of dissolved hydrogen in water may provide benefits.

 

Protection for the Brain from Oxidative Damage

Research has shown that oxidative damage may be a significant factor in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Studies in animal models have shown that drinking hydrogen rich water increased antioxidant levels in the bloodstream, and reduced levels of an enzyme that is an important marker of oxidative damage known as 8-OHdG.

When DNA is damaged by free radicals, the body releases 8-OHdG to repair the damage. Researchers studying the benefits of hydrogen consumption point to the fact that lower levels of 8-OHdG in the body are associated with healthy antioxidant activity in the body.

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Would you consider buying one?

One small detail: Price tag = $ 1,700

Read more: http://www.lifeionizers.com/products/hydrogen-water-machine.html#ixzz2NJvYAfsa

Top 10 Durable Energy Sources

There are a lot of energy sources that are considered environmentally friendly and harness natural processes. These sources of energy provide an alternate ‘cleaner’ source of energy, helping to negate the effects of certain forms of pollution. The current top 10 of this kind of energy are listed below. Which one(s) do you favor most and why?

10. Tidal Power

Tidal energy can be generated in two ways, tidal stream generators or by barrage generation. The power created though tidal generators is generally more environmentally friendly and causes less impact on established ecosystems.

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9. Wave Power

Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work — for example for electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs).

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8. Solar Power

Photovoltaic (PV) Solar power is harnessing the suns energy to produce electricity. One of the fastest growing energy sources, new technologies are developing at a rapid pace. Solar cells are becoming more efficient, transportable and even flexible, allowing for easy installation.

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7. Wind Power

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy by wind turbines into a useful form, such as electricity or mechanical energy. Large-scale wind farms are typically connected to the local power transmission network with small turbines used to provide electricity to isolated areas.

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6. Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydropower, i.e., the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.

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5. Radiant Energy

This natural energy can perform the same wonders as ordinary electricity at less than 1% of the cost. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydropower, i.e., the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy.

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4. Geothermal Power

Geothermal energy is a very powerful and efficient way to extract a renewable energy from the earth through natural processes. This can be performed on a small scale to provide heat for a residential unit (a geothermal heat pump), or on a very large scale for energy production through a geothermal power plant. It has been used for space heating and bathing since ancient roman times, but is now better known for generating electricity.

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3. Biomass

Biomass, as a renewable energy source, refers to living and recently dead biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production.

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2. Compressed Natural Gas

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline, diesel, or propane fuel. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air, and disperses quickly when released).

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1. Nuclear Power

Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions.

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Source: http://listverse.com/2009/05/01/top-10-renewable-energy-sources/

Evolution of Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles

As we all know fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development because of their high potential. The big drawback is that these vehicles remain expensive and there isn’t a high demand for hydrogen at the moment. To try and accelerate the development of a ‘hydrogen economy’, car manufacturers have been working on a hydrogenfueled internal combustion engine as an intermediate step.

To really get an idea of the possibilities that can be established in the future look at the graph below. You can see that both gasoline – and flex fueled hybrids are almost at their highest efficiency possible. Diesel engines can still be increased by 2%, over a period of around 40 years, if car manufacturers are still willing to invest a lot of money in this ‘old’ technology is another question. But if you look at the potential of hydrogen, you can see that the efficiency can still be improved by around 20%, which is huge!

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As we all know the biggest problem of the hydrogen technology is it’s price. The figure below shows the peak efficiencies of the hydrogen system and it’s corresponding cost. The peak efficiency is around 55% and can be increased to 60% by 2015. This value of 60% has already been established and can be implemented in vehicles soon. The peak efficiency will not change in the future, the most research will be focused on reducing the high cost.  The costs are projected to be reduced from $108/kW at the moment to around $45/kW in 2030.

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Another very important aspect of reducing the price of an hydrogen powered vehicle is getting the price of the electric motor and controller down, these power electronics are very expensive at the moment. There is a lot of research going on to get these prices down and the figure below shows how the cost will evolve in the future.

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Do you think that a hydrogen powered vehicle, has what it takes to become the new standard in energy applications? Everybody is talking about fully electric powered vehicles in the future, but what they don’t know is that there is a very limited supply of rare earth minerals to make the expensive lithium-ion batteries…